New Eye Drops Can Dissolve Cataracts With No Need For Surgery
Cataracts is the leading make of blindness worldwide. The only option for those affectedis surgery, an expensive and invasive procedure thats unavailable to many in these developing countries. But perhaps were not too far off from changing that, as another study is hanging the possibility of using eye fells as a viable alternative, potentially offering a practical care to the 20 million or so people affected worldwide.
Cataracts, or cloudy lenses, arise when lens proteins called crystallins begin to spin into the incorrect conformation and clump together. Crystallins, a major constituent of the lens fiber cells , commonly help keep the lens transparent by avoiding proteins from forming aggregates that diffract incoming daylight. They do this by acts as molecular chaperones that maintain the solubility of lens proteins.
As we age, these crystallin proteins can become injury and consequently cluster into fibers much like what we are presented in the brains of those with Alzheimers. Regrettably, these tangles of proteinare much more stable than the normal, native form, and since you stop give crystallins when youre born, their formation depletes the eye of healthy, functional versions.
Armed with this knowledge, authors of the current study, published in Science, went on a hunt for drug compounds that could act as pharmaceutical chaperones, molecules that stick with and stabilise the natural state of a protein. Specifically, they craved chemicals who are able to selectively hang on to the soluble shape of crystallin proteins and thus prevent them from clumping together.
Cataract replacement surgery.codrin5/ Shutterstock
A key part of information facilitated this search: The melting point of crystallins increases as they aggregate together. The researchers scouredthousands of molecules applying a high-throughput technique that basically causes proteins to fluoresce when their melting point is reached, looking for compounds that could lower this property to within the range of normal crystallins. Eventually, they found one that belonged to the same group as a promising compound identified the beginning of this year that scientists also think could treat cataracts.
Encouragingly, in cells grown in petri bowls, this molecule so far merely named substance 21 melted clumps that had already formed and likewise helped prevent these sheaves from forming in the first place. Moving on to animals, they tested out mice both genetically predisposed to cataracts, much like humans with hereditary cataracts can be attributed to gene mutations, and likewise elderly mouse with age-related cataracts. Applied as eye drops, the substance successfully reduced the cloudiness of the lens, a achievement likewise achieved in affected lenses surgically removed from human subjects.
But before we get ahead of ourselves, the tests couldnt prove that vision actually improved in the animals, merely that transparency was increased. Farther tests are therefore needed, but its surely a move in the right direction. Not merely that, but the similarities of clumpy crystallin and the aggregates found in the brains of Alzheimers and Parkinsons patients tantalizingly suggests the possibility of using this compound in illness other than cataracts.
This work is the result of a collaboration between the University of California, San Francisco, the University of Michigan, and Washington University in St. Louis.
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